The Financial Times is dedicated to finding and supporting the growth of junior talent within the technology industry. This sector can be cutthroat and tough to find your footing in when starting out. Since 2016, every September we have welcomed two graduates into our Product & Technology teams for a 12 month programme which sees them rotate around three teams of their choice for six months, with the option to decide which team they would like to join for the following six months. So far every single candidate who has joined us has chosen to stay at the FT following the end of their graduate scheme, and they have transitioned to become fully integrated permanent members of the team.
In 2017 we realised by narrowing our candidate pool to ‘graduates’ we were potentially missing out on a lot of talented people who may not have attended university to study computer science. Our teams are made up of people from all walks of life, which is something we value and consider a huge asset. Why limit or place barriers in front of those who can bring something different to the table? This is why we have made the change, both in name and practice, to a ‘Technology Talent Scheme’, away from the traditional ‘Graduate Scheme’ approach. This means we’re opening our doors to those who may have zero technical qualifications, as a reflection of our open-minded culture.
Culture is inherently important to FT Product & Technology. We talk about it all the time, in meetings, hackathons, internal conferences and workshops, away days, on blogs and even IRL. We want to foster a culture which views junior developers/engineers as a vital resource with a fresh perspective on working processes. We partnered up with Makers Academy, a leading web developer bootcamp in London, to create a video to explain why we feel it is important to invest and nurture junior tech talent. We currently have nine employees who graduated from Makers Academy.
Hear from our two most recent graduate scheme developers, who joined in September 2017, about their FT experiences so far..
“Since starting last September on the graduate engineering programme, I’ve been been lucky enough to work on three teams within the FT, each serving a different role within the company and each with a unique working culture. As part of Cloud Enablement, I helped manage the FT’s cloud infrastructure by automating certain processes. I was also able to spend time on support, helping other developers from throughout the company solve any problems they had using our cloud services. After a couple of months I moved onto FT Labs – a team which experiments with new ideas and technologies to assess their viability. In this team I helped port an existing Google Home game over to Alexa and got to grips with some of the other front-end tools and libraries the company uses.
So far, I have been enthusiastically welcomed and supported within every team I have worked. Outside of these teams, I’ve experienced a fantastic culture of sharing. Developers, designers, product managers, and even journalists are always keen to share their knowledge, whether that’s through weekly lightning talks or informal workshops.
Currently, I’m working on a very different kind of team. As part of interactive graphics in the newsroom, it feels like I’m doing something different every day. After studying computing at university, I never expected that I might one day be working a world-leading newsroom, creating graphics for a publication read by hundreds of thousands of people a day. I’m super excited that by the fact that soon I’ll be able to get something published, in print and online, with the help of a group of incredibly talented designers and journalists.”
“Hi. My name is Katie and I joined the FT’s Grad Scheme in September.
I am fairly new to programming. I studied Actuarial Maths at Leeds Uni. Since my first day I’ve been fully immersed not just in the culture of the FT, but also in continuous professional development.
Since September, I’ve been working in Internal Products within the Technology Department. On the Grad Scheme, you’re expected to move departments every two months, but I’ve been so happy and felt so comfortable in Internal Products that I’ve been given the freedom to stay there.
I expected coming straight from Uni into a big firm would be intimidating. Everyone has their established roles, knows how everything works, and I’m terrible with names. The reality couldn’t have been further from my expectation. The office is warm and welcoming, and by the second week I was an established regular at FT Boardroom, a regular board game focused pub-trip at the end of the week.
My line manager has taken a genuine interest in my career development. We meet every two weeks to discuss my career progression. We set targets for things I want to learn, and work out how to go about it. I am constantly learning and moving forward at work. It’s exciting and motivating and funny, considering 6 months ago I didn’t know what continuous professional development was.
My experience hasn’t been confined to the office. Attending the Amazon Web Service conference was enriching, and I’m off to Berlin with my team for the CSSconf and JSConf EU in June. Can’t complain.
Of the many advantages of working at the FT, those that stick out are the tech talks given in-house, both from internal and external speakers. They’ve covered a range of topics; Artificial intelligence, Voice UI and Good User Experience. FT Women is also an amazing thing. Google it.
I’ve also got flexi-hours. There’s a lower limit of course, but I’m given the freedom to decide how I structure my day and I can’t explain how useful that actually is. Not to mention discounted gym membership.
I feel like the only one amongst my friends to actually look forward to going to work in the morning. (Really). The FT is purposeful in giving those on the scheme the freedom to develop their skills. This week, I’m enrolling on the online course ‘An Introduction to Computer Science’ in conjunction with Harvard University.
I feel incredibly well supported by my team and the wider community at the FT. If you are interested in applying, check out the link below.”
If you are looking to start a career in tech and would like join the FT’s progressive teams, we are accepting applications for our Technology Talent Scheme until February 14, 2018.
Typically the CNAME record for www.ft.com will resolve to the same four A records as ft.com.
;; ANSWER SECTION:
www.ft.com. 3205 IN CNAME f3.shared.global.fastly.net.
f3.shared.global.fastly.net. 14 IN A 184.108.40.206
f3.shared.global.fastly.net. 14 IN A 220.127.116.11
f3.shared.global.fastly.net. 14 IN A 18.104.22.168
f3.shared.global.fastly.net. 14 IN A 22.214.171.124
;; ANSWER SECTION:
ft.com. 13336 IN A 126.96.36.199
ft.com. 13336 IN A 188.8.131.52
ft.com. 13336 IN A 184.108.40.206
ft.com. 13336 IN A 220.127.116.11
Fastly maintain servers in over 50 locations around the world, but we only see 4 IP addresses in our DNS queries.
So how does our traffic end up talking with the closest available Fastly server?
Fastly manage traffic on their network using the border gateway protocol and Anycastrouting, allowing them to send requests to the nearest point of presence while avoiding unplanned outages and locations that are down for maintenance.
Anycast is a network addressing and routing method in which datagrams from a single sender are routed to any one of several destination nodes, selected on the basis of which is the nearest, lowest cost, healthiest, with the least congested route, or some other distance measure.
Fastly route around outages in two ways. The first is at the DNS layer, updating their DNS records to avoid the problematic location. The second way is at the network layer, broadcasting new routes using BGP, this alters the path that a request’s TCP packets will take between routers.
At the end of all this we eventually connect to a Fastly server, so what happens next?
Content Delivery Network (CDN)
We use a CDN to reduce the number of requests made to our applications running in Heroku.
Much of our content is the same for all users, typically only a little different if you are logged in or not. If we cache these different versions in the CDN we can serve requests without even bothering the Heroku applications.
Our setup allows us to cache ~94% of all requests, with a cache hit rate of ~90%. So if we see something like 9,000,000 requests during a morning peak, by using the CDN’s cache we only pass on ~900,000 requests to our Heroku applications.
Here the main response headers we’re interested in are Age, Cache-Control, and Surrogate-Control.
Age defines how long this response has been cached by Fastly, it also helps to indicate that this response was successfully served by the cache.
Cache-Control defines several directives, but in summary is saying this response should not be cached.
Surrogate-Control however is stating in the max-age that the response can be cached for 24 hours, the directives value being defined in seconds. In Fastly, a response with this header will be respected over any Cache-Controlheader. This allows us to define different caching rules for browsers and the CDN, as browsers ignore the Surrogate-Control header.
We also define stale-while-revalidate and stale-if-error directives, which tells Fastly that we are happy to serve responses from the cache, even if the cached object’s Age has exceeded what’s defined in max-age.
stale-while-revalidate allows us to respond using a stale response while grabbing a fresh copy in the background, ensuring we’re responding to requests as quick as possible.
stale-if-error is critical to how we deal with outages and errors, it tells Fastly to serve from the cache, including stale responses, if the backend is responding with errors. This gives us time to fix issues while reducing the impact to our users when things go wrong.
A quirk of Fastly means you must specify a max-age of over 61 minutes to ensure your response is cached on disk, and therefore available for a longer period of time in the CDN to serve stale. A cached object that’s only in memory can be removed for several reasons well before it’s deemed stale.
The Vary header in the response is another part of the Caching specification.
It allows us to store different versions of a response depending on headers in the request.
Take the Accept-Encoding header in a request, and lets say we make two requests, the first with Accept-Encoding: gzip and the second with no such header, both to /search.
We will actually serve two different responses, the first will come back with a header of Content-Encoding: gzip and will be compressed using gzip. The second will not contain a Content-Encoding header and will be uncompressed.
It would be pretty badfor us to serve a compressed version of the page if the client does not ask for it. For this reason we must cache these responses separately, and this is where the Vary header comes in.
In this example we would respond with Vary: Accept-Encoding. This indicates that caches should store a separate version of the response depending on the value of the Accept-Encoding header in the request. Such caches include a client’s browser and our Fastly service.
For the website we actually take this a step further within Fastly and include several request headers that are decorated in preflight (as discussed later), so that when we serve different responses for A/B tests for example (see Vary: FT-Flags) we are still able to cache them in the CDN.
Given we tell Fastly to cache our front page for a whole day, how are we able to serve the latest version of the page to all our users?
By using the Fastly API we are able to purge the cached content. We also have an event driven system (using AWS Kinesis) that knows when content has changed, we can use this information to issue purge requests and serve the very latest news to our users.
Fastly supports several types of purging. The most simple method is to issue a hard purge by URL, but this may result in a slower response for a few users.
Our autonomous systems make heavy use of soft purging by surrogate key, as this should result in no end user impact, and ensure all related content is purged, even if it exists on multiple URLs (e.g. /, /?edition=uk, and/?edition=international).
How does soft purging result in no end user impact? It is very similar to what we discussed earlier in our use of stale-while-revalidate. Soft purging in essence marks cached responses with the given surrogate key as stale, even if they are still fresh according to their max-age value. This then allows Fastly to serve the stale response until they’ve fetched a fresh version in the background.
Fastly maintain their own fork of Varnish and have heavily modified it to suit their platform, so while this means we define our logic in Varnish Configuration Language (VCL) we must refer to the Fastly documentation more than Varnish’s.
For www.ft.com however we are not using the h2o part of the Fastly black box. In order to support TLS 1.0 and 1.1 for IE 10 support we are instead pointing at a different bit of their infrastructure to handle the TLS termination.
An important part of what we do to a request in Fastly is decorating it with a whole bunch of metadata (e.g. session state, A/B test groups, etc.). This is handled by our Preflight application.
There’s a complex bit of VCL that passes the request to Preflight, takes the response and enriches the original request, then restarting the Varnish state machine to either serve the request from cache or fetch a fresh response from our applications.
What make us Platinum?
Simplifying what happens in Fastly, we allow their platform to do a bit of caching, and every now and then ask our applications for new content.
To be platinum we must be able to serve request from tworegions, to cater for an outage of a whole region. For us that means we run in Heroku’s EU and US regions.
When Fastly does talk to our applications it actually runs through a snippet of VCL that determines which region should serve the request. Ideally this is the closest region to our visitor (e.g. a request from New York should be served by the US Heroku region). However if a region is unhealthy, which we continually monitor for, our Fastly service will fallback to the other, hopefully healthy region.
Preflight forwards the user’s request for a web page to several other FT APIs in order to decorate the request with various properties.
Preflight gathers test information from our Ammit service, vanity URLs from our URL management service, subscription information from membership’s Access service, barrier page information from our Barrier Guru service, and finally session information from membership’s Session service.
By doing this in Preflight in combination with Fastly we avoid having to do all this work in each of our applications, they can just make use of the decorated request.
This is another Heroku application, but it is a little different from our typical Express.js applications.
The router is a simple streaming HTTP proxy that takes a request and passes it on to the correct application. We define where requests should be sent to in our service registry, for example requests to ^/search are directed to the search page Heroku application.
The ft.com router.
Our service registry is a basic JSON document that is hosted as a platinum service. It’s stored in S3 across two regions, and uses a similar setup to our ft.com Fastly service to serve from both regions.
Here’s a little example snippet with some extra details removed. You should be able to spot a path, ^/__foo-bar, and a Heroku app foo-bar-eu.
We use components to share common functionality between all our applications, some examples being n-express and n-ui.
Typically the data sources for these applications will either be our Elasticsearch clusters, or the Next API.
Once our application has handled the request, it’ll travel all the way back through the stack, hopefully be cached by Fastly, and then sent on to our browser 🙌.
With our microservice based setup, no two applications are the same. Because of this while www.ft.com is a platinum service, we also don’t offer support for the whole site 24/7. Our range of service “metals” is either bronze or platinum, though you may see gold and silver mentioned around the rest of the company.
The main difference between bronze and platinum is that a bronze service only needs to run in a single region, while a platinum service, as discussed previously, must operate in two regions.
We run a platinum tier Elasticsearch endpoint, using two highly available clusters in two distinct AWS regions.
These clusters are our store of all content for www.ft.com, and is addressed using a single DNS record.
How does it work? We use a service provided by Dyn called Traffic Director, allowing you to achieve similar routing results to what we do in Fastly for www.ft.com.
The domain has two pools of addresses, one points at the US Elasticsearch cluster, the other at the EU cluster. If everything is healthy then Dyn advertises the closest pool to the request. If a pool is unhealthy then Dyn will not advertise it, falling back to the other healthy pool.
The difference between this and how we achieve platinum in Fastly is that this setup is entirely DNS based, and so when issues occur we will be advertising a different CNAME record (whereas in Fastly this all happens inside Varnish).
The End Result
What follows is a simplified overview of our stack.
This year we held our third ‘Engine Room Live’ conference for the Product & Technology teams at the FT. It being the third time we have held this we had some previous learnings to bear in mind. The ‘original’ Engine Room committee decided it was time for ‘Gen 2’ to have a go at organising the event, for a fresh take on some hardy matters. So, with minimal hand holding and a solid process in mind, 12 people raised their hands..
Step 1. Make a plan
Our new planning committee held its first meeting all the way back in June. The first thing we did was pick a date. We scanned our diaries and set our sights on a time post summer holidays and the mad rush month that is September at the FT. We stumbled upon Friday 13th October. Were we asking for bad luck? Could this be a complete disaster? Never ones to be swayed by superstition we settled on it. Having four months to plan ahead we kicked back on our metaphorical laurels safe in the knowledge we had more than enough time to plan every minor detail. Then Summer happened. Our team of around 12 helpers steadily diminished as people went on holiday, were pulled in to pressing projects and one volunteer even went to the extreme length of pregnancy to avoid further involvement (just kidding, that would be terrible grounds for creating a new life). We sent out a google form with a few suggested topics and asked people in Product & Technology teams to pick the subjects that appealed the most to them.
Step 2. Easy pickin’s
Post-summer break the ‘survivors’, now a measly 4-5 people, reconvened to discuss next steps and pick our panel topics. The favourite topics, by a landslide, were product goals, Agile project management, what we choose to measure and tech culture at the FT. One topic which was a close runner up was ‘How can we learn from failure?’ which is good food for thought. Maybe this is a topic we can pick up at next year’s Engine Room Live..
It was settled. We had our panels and now looked to the task at hand; finding willing panelists and panel moderators. We sent out a call to arms and were lucky enough to receive some replies. With a bit of prodding several more volunteers appeared from the wood work. Good stuff. We had everything in place panel-wise.
Step 3. Don’t forget the snacks
The most vital part of planning any event is providing a delicious incentive for guests to attend. Conferences have t shirts. The oscars have lavish goodie bags. We had PIZZA and BEER. Two traditional tech staples. This year’s Engine Room Live also included highly requested soft drinks and some lighter snacks so as to be inclusive for those who do not drink alcohol or would prefer a healthier option.
Step 4. Audience participation on the sly + the best quotes of the day
We wanted our audience to feel included in our panels without the interruption and hassle of microphones or catch boxes. Nobody likes microphones, the poor mic runners have to dash to make sure questions are heard without having to be repeated, then the microphone will inevitably squeak and crackle for the first 5 seconds of use leaving the speaker overly self aware of their own voice so they start using a warped tone and begin to audibly question their whole existence. Not fun for anyone. To avoid this shy introvert’s nightmare we used slido which allows audience members to ask questions anonymously, or by name, from their phones or laptops.
Our panellists and moderators were all excellent. Here are some of the top quotes of the day:
“I read a blog post on how to be a moderator so that’s why I’m so great at this”
“Instagram’s that photo app.. Right?”
“We’re a news company.. In case you didn’t know”
“It was the hoodies in the garage, not the suits in a meeting room!”
“You could say that a group of 12 men could have figured that out but actually, they didn’t”
“It’s not offensive because penguins aren’t a marginalised group”
Step 5. Humble brag
We had a great turnout with over 200 members of staff attending in person or via livestream throughout the day. This was an excellent example of grassroots engagement, staff were actively participating either on stage, as audience members or by asking questions to panels.
Step 6. What did everyone else think?
The week after the conference the committee sent out a form requesting feedback from attendees. 83% rated the event as 8/10 or higher on satisfaction level. Aim to please!
Lots of people complimented the frank, impassioned discussions that happened and how panels felt ‘honest’. A new joiner commented that they found the conference ‘refreshing’ for its openness. Another person noted the panel on tech culture was ‘one of the most interesting explorations of the subject I’ve experienced’ and they were happy to see debates not dominated by the ‘usual suspects’. Several people commented that they were pleased by the ‘inclusiveness’ and diverse perspectives showcased.
On the flip side one person thought the panels were too long and would’ve preferred more, shorter panels. One person felt there were too few senior faces in the crowd, although they applauded the senior team members who moderated or participated as panellists. Finally, one person’s only negative suggestion was to ‘be less nice to each other’, which I personally wouldn’t call a sign of defeat.
We also asked people if anything ‘unexpected’ happened. The responses were very interesting. Some people were pleasantly surprised at the discussions which took place. One other unexpected aspect which surfaced was the candidness of our panellists and their willingness to talk about deeply personal experiences within the workplace both at the FT and previous jobs.
Step 7. So, what did we learn?
Here are some takeaways from my perspective:
We have a great culture of respect, openness and honesty in FT Product & Technology
Some people here will go the extra mile to help others without expecting anything in return
Apps like Slido are a great way to encourage and enable smooth audience participation
People are motivated by a combination of product goals, their managers, teams, personal objectives and remuneration
It is really interesting to hear diverse viewpoints and learn about others’ take on subjects such as goals, how we work and what we choose to focus on
Inclusivity means including everyone in the conversation and the implementation of change
If you are a member of FT staff you can watch the panel recordings on Workplace by following the links below:
The FT hosted it’s second London Serverless meetup on Wednesday 11th October. Around 60 people from across London came to hear about Serverless in the FT’s Conference Suites.
What’s serverless? Serverless is the aggregation of third party services (e.g. data stores), including ones that run simple business functions (Functions As A Service, known as FaaS). AWS Lambda is one of the best known of these. See; Serverless Architectures from Martin Fowler for more. Although it gets it’s name from not involving servers directly, everything runs on third party servers underneath…
At this meetup Yan Cui, Senior Developer at Space Ape Games spoke about “Lambda stories from the trenches“ where he described some of the problems they have faced and gone on to solve running their Mobile games platform on a Serverless Architecture. Yan is a prolific blogger, check out some of his posts here; https://hackernoon.com/@theburningmonk
Ant Stanley then did a live demo of the new serverless framework (https://arc.codes/) released recently by Brian Le Roux and his team at Begin. A great framework if you’re focused on using serverless for websites or chat bots. Ant also over-ordered far too much pizza and drinks…
We have another Serverless meetup due on 15th November – please sign up here if you are interested in watching this area evolve.
At the Financial Times we’ve recently released a new version of our website, FT.com. “Next FT”, as we’ve come to know it, is now the default experience for our users, and so far it’s proving to be a great one: It’s faster, it’s nicer, it’s better; a success across the board . Yet there’s an aspect of our new site we have largely overlooked: accessibility (a11y).
In this post we will explore what web accessibility is, why it’s important, the current state of accessibility at FT.com and the work we’re doing to improve it.
Approximately a year has passed since Salesforce announced the new Lightning experience. And what a year for Salesforce! At first I thought ‘this is going to take a while, there’s going to be a learning curve, probably known bugs to deal with’, we tentatively started switching on the New Lightning Experience to play around with the new User Interface. In a short while we tested some visualforce pages embedded in the new Salesforce application. Finally, this summer we made the leap to building the first Lightning components and Lightning application.
One of my favourite series as a child was ‘The Flash’. He could miraculously find himself from his home dressed in pyjamas, down the street in front of a shop window within seconds. When I built my first Lightning app this year, the images from ‘The Flash’ running around with the speed of light immediately came to my mind. Three words: fast, simple, beautiful. No wonder they named it Lightning.Continue reading “The Year of Lightning”
Update: Since writing this blog I’ve learnt that there may be a better approach to this problem. These days, Neo4j allows you to make indexes on numeric properties and run range queries that use the index. We can take advantage of this for dates by storing them as millisecond timestamps, allowing us to perform date range queries without the need to maintain a time tree.
If you’re aware of this and still vaguely interested in time trees from an academic point of view, by all means read on 😁.
The new and improved FT website, launching 5 October, has many exciting and engaging new features, one of which is the subject of my own team’s focus: myFT.